The Dynamo Theory vs the 6K year old Freely Decaying Electric Currents
Scientific discoveries that have debunked the Dynamo Theory and support the young earth creation record of the Bible:
The Secular Sciences and the Dynamo Theory (MIT)
The Dynamo Theory as taught in secular sciences is the idea that a large dynamo, or magnetic field generator, exists within Earth’s outer core, where liquid iron constantly moves as the planet cools. This continuous motion is presumed to create electric currents as electrons move through the liquid (where heat from radioactive decay in the solid iron inner core is thought to induce the convective motion of the liquid outer core). Through this theoretical process, the energy of the moving fluid is assumed to produce a magnetic field about the earth (and some planets) that can be sustained for billions of years. There are three requisites for a dynamo to operate: 1) An electrically conductive fluid medium 2) Kinetic energy provided by planetary rotation, 3) An internal energy source to drive convective motions within the fluid. This dynamo generator would produce a sin wave (/\_/\_/\_/\_/\_/) in the signature of the gauss strength measurements if the theory were true (as the energy decays and then is bumped up with the various strengths in the energy surges).
Based on the most current scientific data the Dynamo Engine Theory has been thoroughly debunked; however, just like the Theory of Evolution being debunked by conditional probability (combinational inflation) as concluded by top scientists in 1966 at the Wistar Convention and evidenced in both the fossil record and the genomic sciences (no evidence of the Darwinian Tree of Life [ToL] in ether), the Secular Humanists that dominate the sciences refuse to let it go because the alternative theory, the 6k year old free decaying electrical currents postulated by Creationists Dr. Barnes and Dr. Humphreys, does not fit into a 4.5 billion year old earth.
Creationist Scientists and the 6,000 year old Freely Decaying Electric Currents
The Scriptures describe a process by which God first made all astrological objects as bodies of water (the earth, sun, moon, stars, et al) with all the physical properties of water, mass, and motion, including molecular structure (H2O), gravity, orbits, rotation, and magnetospheres. Then he created the solid matters and associated elements (dry land). So in six days, God created the earth within a solar system of many, within a galaxy of many, within a grand universe.
Time of creation:The approximate year of creation can be determined by formulating a time line based on the genealogies and chronological events given in Old Testament (as demonstrated in Part 6) which comes to about 6000 years from 2000 AD.
Based on this knowledge, the following assumptions were made for the basis of this model:
- The earth was created about 6,000 years ago.
- While yet in the watery state God created atomic nuclei with their spins pointing in the same direction, thereby creating the force of the original magnetosphere.
- Once the solids and other elements were created, the alignments would immediately decay to random order due to natural thermal collisions; however, large electrical currents (billions of amperes) would be generated due to the laws of electricity and magnetism in the planets’ interior iron core, reproducing the magnetosphere at near the same strength.
- At this point, the electrical currents in the core would start to decay exponentially due to the laws of electrical resistance and entropy.
The sciences behind the assumptions of the 6000 year old (6kyo) freely decaying electrical currents circulating in the earth's core as advocated by Creationists Barns & Humphreys are aligned with both Sir Horace Lamb’s 1883 theory and mathematical formula of free electrical current circulating in a conducting sphere and evaluations measuring the magnetic strength and direction of the force by Carl Fredrick Gauss in 1835, both well respected by the secular scientific community.
The Dynamo Theory vs the 6kyo Freely Decaying Electric Currents Scientific discoveries that have debunked the Dynamo Theory and support the young earth creation record of the Bible:
- All the measured planetary magnetosphere gauss strengths appear to be on a decaying slope as opposed to a steady state cyclical pattern (sin wave pattern - /\_/\_/\_/\_/\_/) that would support a dynamo engine (the earth’s has decayed 10% over the last 160 years [\] as seen in the direct measurement [empirical data] and 6000 yrs when analyzing the paleomagnetism of rocks).
- There are no indications of any upward trending of the magnetosphere gauss strength in any astrological body that has been examined that would support the dynamo theory steady state sin wave.
- Evidence to the contrary of the dynamo theory now exists such as the planet Mercury having a magnetic field in spite of its slow rotation and the unexpected residual magnetism of moon rocks (the moon does not rotate at all) and planetesimals that indicate they once had a magnetic field which are outside of the dynamo theory functional parameters (but are within Dr. Humphries modeled predictions).
- Rigorous mathematical analysis by T.G. Cowling prove that any plausible motion of fluid in the earth’s core cannot produce the dynamo, even if the hypothesized motion did exist. To date numerical modeling of the Earth's magnetic field has not been successfully demonstrated(with the discoveries listed in 3 above the “eigenvalue” theories of Elsasser and Bullard trumping Cowlings formula to show a possible means to the perpetuation of a dynamo are nullified).
- All the known magnetosphere gauss strengths are aligned with the formulas developed by Carl Fredrick Gauss (magnetic forces) and Sir Horace Lamb (free electric currents circulating in a conducting sphere [accounting for electrical resistance and entropy]) and Dr. Humphreys modeled predictions of the existence, the strength, and decay rate of planetary magnetosphere based on a 6,000 year old creation.
- Dr. Humphreys Creation Model is accurate at predicting the gauss strength of planetary magnetospheres to within >95% of the measured values for their existence, their strength, and decay rate of planetary magnetosphere before they are known based on a 6,000 year old universe and H20 molecules as given in the process of creation described in the Bible.
- Magnetic dipole reversals seen in the paleomagnetism of rocks can easily be explained due to the eddy current moments produced in the earth’s core due to energy surges produced by earth’s crust being “broken up” during the flood and post flood movement of the continent’s tectonic plates on the scale it is predicted to have occurred.
The earth's dipole magnetic field (the magnetosphere) has been decaying at approximately 10% over the past 150 years and the decay rate appears to be on an exponential curve. There is a direct correlation between the strength of the magnetosphere, and the freely decaying electrical currents circulating in the earth's core as advocated by Creationists Barns & Humphreys; hence, the magnetic field is decaying congruent with the entropy of the 6k year old free circulating electrical currents of the earth's molten core.
Chart showing the decaying Magnetosphere from 1835 to 2010
The magnetic moment in 1984 was 7.9 x 10^22 Jules per Tesla (1 J/T = 1 Amp-M^2 =1000 Gauss/cm^3)
Planetary Magnetospheres by Dr. Humphreys & Dr. Barnes
Dr. Russell Humphreys, a prominent nuclear physicist and geophysicist who earned an award for excellence for his contributions to light ion–fusion target theory from the Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico, is a creationist who formulated a model that is >95% accurate at predicting the existence, the strength, and decay rate of planetary magnetosphere before they are known based on a 6,000 year old universe and H20 molecules as given in the process of creation described in the Bible.
Creation scientists have a distinct advantage over secular scientists when it comes to scientific modeling – the Word of God. There are clues given in the Bible that would never be considered by the secular scientist. One of the most exemplary scientific models of creation science is the planetary magnetosphere model developed by Dr. Russell Humphreys in 1984. Using the clues given in the Bible, he was able to make accurate predictions based on assumptions and deduced processes that would not have been known from any other scientific or historical resource.
Key Scriptures on the Process of Creation:
Ge:1:2: And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
Ge:1:6: And God said, let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
Ge:1:7: And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
Gen:1:9: And God said, let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
Ge:1:10: And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
2Pe:3:5: For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water:
These scriptures describe a process by which God first made all astrological objects as bodies of water (the earth, sun, moon, stars, et al) with all the physical properties of water, mass, and motion, including molecular structure (H2O), gravity, orbits, rotation, and magnetospheres. Then he created the solid matters and associated elements (dry land). So in six days, God created the earth within a solar system of many, within a galaxy of many, within a grand universe.
Time of creation: The approximate year of creation can be determined by formulating a time line based on the genealogies and chronological events given in Old Testament which comes to about 6000 years from 2000 AD.
Based on this knowledge, the following assumptions were made for the basis of this model:
A:The earth was created about 6,000 years ago.
B. While yet in the watery state God created atomic nuclei with their spins pointing in the same direction, thereby creating the force of the original magnetosphere.
C. Once the solids and other elements were created, the alignments would immediately decay to random order due to natural thermal collisions; however, large electrical currents (billions of amperes) would be generated due to the laws of electricity and magnetism in the planets’ interior molten core, reproducing the magnetosphere at near the same strength.
D. At this point, the electrical currents in the core would start to decay exponentially due to the laws of electrical resistance and entropy.
This expected decay rate is reflected in the empirical data recorded over the last 160 years, as shown in the many articles by Dr. Humphries and Jeff Walling’s book “HIS STORY as a Matter of Fact”
1.Earth’s Magnetic Field Is Decaying Steadily with a Little Rhythm by D. Russell Humphreys, Winter 2011, CRSQ Vol 47 No 3 pp 193-201 [PDF] Retrieved from https://creationresearch.org/selected-articles-1975-2012/
2.Barnes, T. G. Ph.D, (1983). Origin and destiny of the earth's magnetic field (2nd Ed.). El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research. In 1984, Dr. Humphreys took Dr. Barnes’ theory based on the exponential decay factors of the strength of earth's magnetic field when extrapolated backwards and came up with this model based on the approximate age of the universe as given in the Bible, the planetary masses, and a certain k factor (k=0.25 in almost all cases) to apply to other planets in the solar system. He then modeled several planetary magnetic fields such as the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn. He not only rightly predicted the known values of the sun, moon, and planets, he also predicted what we would find when we got close enough to Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989 via the Voyager II and was precisely correct. Due to the uncertainties of the planets’ interiors, Dr. Humphreys predicted that the magnetic moments of both planets would be between 1 x 10^23 and 1 x 10^25 A m2. On January 20, 1986, Voyager II passed by Uranus and measured Uranus's magnetic moment at 3.0 x 10^24 A m2. On August 25, 1989, Voyager II passed by Neptune and found that it has a magnetic moment of 1.5 x 10^24 A m2. Both actual values are approximately in the middle of Dr. Humphreys’ estimates. Additionally, Dr. Humphreys’ model accurately predicted Mercury's decaying magnetosphere. In 1974 & 75, to the surprise of NASA scientists, the Mariner 10 Spacecraft measured Mercury's magnetic moment at 4.8 x 10^22 gauss CM3. In 1984 Dr. Humphreys published his Magnetic Field Model which included the predicted decay factors for Mercury's magnetic field. In 2008 Messenger flew by Mercury and found the magnetic moment had decayed as the model had predicted. NASA scientists had predicted that there would be no magnetic field due to its size, whereas Dr. Humphreys’ model predicts it would have a magnetic field, its original strength, and the approximate strength at any given time, just as it did with the Uranus and Neptune magnetic fields. The actual measured magnetic strength is not a precise science, and scientists are not in agreement as to the magnitude of decay of Mercury, as the data interpretation ranges from 0%, 4%, 27%, to 40% decay. Being that Dr. Humphreys’ model has been accurate in all other instances, there is no reason not to believe that his predicted calculation is probably the most accurate at 4%.